A-Rod has been suspended through 2014. He is expected to appeal, and that process will take 2-4 weeks.
He is eligible to return for the 2015 season, when he will be almost 40 years old and have about $60 million left on his contract. At that point, I expect it will be about retiring as physically unable to play, so that he can get his money. Any games that he plays with the Yankees while his appeal is considered are most likely the last of his professional career.
Twelve other players were suspended for 50 games each, and none of them will appeal.